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[9月16日] 劳动与健康经济学Workshop

发布日期:2022-09-11 09:16    来源:

Fertility Effects and Motherhood Penalties:

Evidence from China



地点:北京大学承泽园校区 246教室




摘要:This study examined gender-specific effects of childbirth using even study and longitudinal data in China. We find that women face reduced labor force participation, full-time employment, earnings, wage rates, and slower occupational advancement. Motherhood penalties vary by socioeconomic status (SES): less educated women with smaller family wealth experience less reductions in labor force participation but more drops in full-time employment and earnings. The heterogeneity is explained by low-SES women’s tighter household budgets and less access to maternity leaves. Consequently, they have to quit well-paid formal sector jobs but cannot afford to stay out of the labor force; even traditional gender norms cannot keep these women home. Premature returns to the workforce necessitate family separations by making grandparents care for the children. There are also important non-economic motherhood penalties for women. Women spend more time on housework after becoming mothers, whereas men only undertake extra housework during their wives’ pregnancies. Compared to non-working mothers, working mothers who care for their children by themselves experience greater losses in well-being, while those who are not their children’s main caregivers suffer the greatest loss because they are more likely to experience separation from their children. Our study implied that extending job protection to low SES women deserves policy attention.